Liraglutide is a polypeptide analog of the naturally occurring protein GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide), containing 30 to 31 amino acids. Structurally similar to GLP-1, scientists consider this a lipopeptide, comprising the amino acid arginine and a hexadecanoyl group, which is attributed to this compound’s supposed long-acting nature.(1)
Researchers speculate that Liraglutide mimics the action of GLP-1, a hormone produced in the intestine. GLP-1 is considered to increase insulin production and slow down gastric emptying after meals. Liraglutide may also activate the brain’s satiety center, making the subject feel full. Furthermore, it may possibly stimulate the release of insulin from the beta cells in the pancreas, lowering blood glucose levels.
Liraglutide, similar to GLP-1, may induce what scientists call the “incretin effect,” a term coined by Dr. Holst.(2) Incretins are the metabolic hormones and released in the gastrointestinal tract which are then considered to diminish sugar levels in blood. Besides, GLP-1 agonistic receptors are reported to be located on the surface of beta cells found in the pancreas, making it probable that GLP-1 binds to this receptor inducing exocytosis of insulin released by the pancreas.
When combined with certain other compounds, the action of Liraglutide may be amplified. A 2007 study was conducted where the Liraglutide peptide was presented in a rat pancreas that already had sulfonylurea compound presence. The study results suggested that: “GLP-1 administration to isolated perfused rat pancreases at low perfusate glucose concentrations normally does not affect insulin secretion but resulted in dramatic stimulation of insulin secretion after pretreatment with sulfonylurea […]. Indeed, 30–40% of [subjects] treated with both sulfonyl urea compounds and a GLP-1 agonist experience, usually mild, hypoglycemia“.(2)
Research and Clinical Studies
- A study conducted in 2006 has suggested that GLP-1 may inhibit the death of pancreatic beta cells and protect the islet cells from future destruction.(3)
- Liraglutide may possibly induce satiety and reducing food intake. Recent clinical studies suggest that when Liraglutide peptide was presented in mice two times per day, it appeared to induce gradual, linear weight loss and decreased appetite.(4) By possibly reducing excessive weight, Liraglutide may help decrease risk of complications associated with blood sugar and insulin.
- GLP-1 agonistic receptors are reported to be present throughout the heart muscle. The Liraglutide peptide may have the potential to regulate cardiac function, boost heart rate, and reduce blood pressure. Liraglutide has been suggested to act via binding, stimulating glucose uptake within the cardiac muscles, through which the oxygen-derived (ischemic) heart muscles may receive nutritional glucose. A.K. Bose et al. suggested for the first time that GLP-1 may protect the heart against myocardial infarction, stating that “this finding (myocardial protection properties of GLP-1 and its analogs) may represent a new therapeutic potential for this class of drug that also appears to involve activating multiple prosurvival kinases.” (5)
- The peptide appears to bind with receptors in the brain, possibly leading to enhancements in the “associative and “spatial learning” abilities in mice. Matthew J. During states, “GLP-1R represents a promising new target for cognitive-enhancing and neuroprotective agents.” (6)
Liraglutide peptide is available for research and laboratory purposes only. Please review and adhere to our Terms and Conditions before ordering.
- National Center for Biotechnology Information (2022). PubChem Compound Summary for CID 16134956, Liraglutide. Retrieved November 14, 2022, from https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Liraglutide
- Holst JJ. The physiology of glucagon-like peptide 1. Physiol Rev. 2007 Oct;87(4):1409-39. DOI: 10.1152/physrev.00034.2006. PMID: 17928588. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17928588/
- Tandong Yang, Meng Chen, Jeffrey D. Carter, Craig S. Nunemaker, James C. Garmey, Sarah D. Kimble, Jerry L. Nadler, Combined treatment with lisofylline and exendin-4 reverses autoimmune diabetes, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 344, Issue 3, 2006, Pages 1017-1022, ISSN 0006-291X, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006291X06007066
- Blonde L, Klein EJ, Han J, Zhang B, Mac SM, Poon TH, Taylor KL, Trautmann ME, Kim DD, Kendall DM. Interim analysis of the effects of exenatide treatment on A1C, weight and cardiovascular risk factors over 82 weeks in 314 overweight patients with type 2 diabetes. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16776751/
- Bose AK, Mocanu MM, Carr RD, Brand CL, Yellon DM. Glucagon-like peptide 1 can directly protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury. Diabetes. 2005. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15616022/
- During MJ, Cao L, Zuzga DS, Francis JS, Fitzsimons HL, Jiao X, Bland RJ, Klugmann M, Banks WA, Drucker DJ, Haile CN. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor is involved in learning and neuroprotection. Nat Med. 2003 Sep; https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12925848
- Liraglutide (Subcutaneous route). https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/liraglutide-subcutaneous-route/side-effects/drg-20073828?p=1
NOTE: These products are intended for laboratory research use only. Liraglutide for sale (1mg) is not intended for personal use. Please review and adhere to our Terms and Conditions before ordering.
Dr. Marinov (MD, Ph.D.) is a researcher and chief assistant professor in Preventative Medicine & Public Health. Prior to his professorship, Dr. Marinov practiced preventative, evidence-based medicine with an emphasis on Nutrition and Dietetics. He is widely published in international peer-reviewed scientific journals and specializes in peptide therapy research.