Contents: Oxytocin (10mg)
Form: Lyophilized powder
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Oxytocin is a naturally occurring cyclic peptide hormone composed of nine amino acids. It appears to act as a neurotransmitter in the brain and is considered to be secreted by the pituitary gland.(1) The synthetic form of the peptide, called Recombinant Oxytocin, is also a cyclic nonapeptide that was developed to be analogous to the naturally occurring peptide.(2)
First isolation of the peptide was carried out in 1920, followed by its structure discovery in the 1950s and thereafter several research studies were conducted to fully explore the peptide's action and characteristics. Considered by scientists to be created by the hypothalamus, Oxytocin may be secreted and stored in the posterior pituitary gland, which is then secreted in hormonal stimulation.(5) Unlike other hormones, naturally occurring Oxytocin has been posited to work via a positive feedback mechanism. This means that the initial secretion of the hormone peptide may lead to further release of the peptide in higher concentrations and with higher intensity.(5) Both synthetic and natural forms appear to work through the same mechanism.
Once entered into the system, Oxytocin may bind with the G-protein coupled receptors, potentially leading to increased levels of intracellular calcium. This calcium secretion then appears to cause uterine contractions. Once the uterine contractions begin, it may stimulate further release of Oxytocin leading to higher frequency and intensity of the contractions, potentially via positive feedback mechanism.(5) The peptide appears to contribute to the contractions of myoepithelial cells found in the alveolar ducts of breasts. These contractions may stimulate milk ejection from alveolar ducts into the larger sinuses, thereby leading to milk expulsion. The positive feedback mechanism may work here also, with initial milk expulsion potentially stimulating more peptide release and continuous milk release.(5)
Research and Clinical Studies
Oxytocin Peptide and Labor Induction
The main aim of this clinical study(6) was to determine the rate of cesarean delivery in female subjects after removing Oxytocin presence once active labor starts (5 cm cervical dilation) compared to subjects where Oxytocin is given until the maintenance level as determined in clinical trial study protocol. A randomized clinical trial was conducted in 252 female subjects between 18 to 50 years. The subjects were divided into two groups with 127 subjects (group A) continuously given the peptide per study protocol even after the subjects reached active labor, and 125 subjects (group B) given Oxytocin which was then discontinued after active labor induction. After a 24-72 hour study period, there were 32 reported cesarean deliveries in group A with 10 infants exhibiting one or more abnormalities which warranted further observation, whereas there were 24 reported caesarean deliveries in group B with 9 infants with abnormalities.
Oxytocin Peptide and Breastfeeding
The main goal of this clinical study(7) was to evaluate the potential of the peptide in breastfeeding. A retrospective study(7) was conducted where 100 females subjects given Oxytocin during labor were compared with 100 other female subjects not exposed to Oxytocin. Duration of breastfeeding was measured. Following study result analysis, the researchers suggested that the female subjects with present Oxytocin exhibited apparently impaired breastfeeding for the first hour. For first three months after delivery, female subjects from both groups (27% subjects given Oxytocin, and 14% without) were not apparently able to breastfeed. Following three months, the breastfeeding was reported to be significantly increased in the Oxytocin subjects. The reason suggested by researchers for impaired breastfeeding during the first three months was the high pre-gestational body mass index in the test subject.
Oxytocin Peptide and Vasodilation
Vasodilation is the dilation of blood vessels, which is considered to be a mechanism to increase blood flow. The main purpose of this study(8) was to evaluate the potential of Oxytocin on cardiac function and tone in the heart muscles. 51 pregnant test subjects were present in this clinical study, and were divided into two groups, one given Oxytocin and other given a placebo during the first trimester. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded. The results suggested that the peptide may exhibit vasodilatory properties on the small and outlying arteries and elevated that left ventricular ejection time.
Oxytocin Peptide and Autism
The main aim of this clinical study(9) was to evaluate if the peptide exhibits any action on autistic subjects. Autism is considered to be a psychiatric disorder related to poor brain development impacting how the subject socializes and communicates. 59 male subjects, aged 6 to 11 years, were examined in this study. Out of the 59 test subjects, 29 were autistic, and the rest were considered control subjects by the researchers. The plasma levels of Oxytocin were measured in this study, and it was reported by the researchers that autistic subjects exhibited lower levels of peptide hormone compared to the healthy subjects. Once the levels of Oxytocin were elevated as part of the study, the VABS score (analytic behavior score) of autistic subjects appeared improved.
Oxytocin peptide is available for research and laboratory purposes only. Please review and adhere to our Terms and Conditions before ordering.
- National Center for Biotechnology Information. "PubChem Compound Summary for CID 439302, Oxytocin" PubChem
- Recombinant Oxytocin (Code C724). https://ncit.nci.nih.gov/ncitbrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&ns=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C724
- Dale, H H. “On some physiological actions of ergot.” The Journal of physiology vol. 34,3 (1906): 163-206. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1465771/
- The action of animal extracts on milk secretion. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.1911.0042
- Osilla EV, Sharma S. Oxytocin. [Updated 2021 Jul 27]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK507848/
- Induction of Labor with Oxytocin: When Should Oxytocin be held? https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT00957593
- Gomes M, Trocado V, Carlos-Alves M, Arteiro D, Pinheiro P. Intrapartum synthetic oxytocin and breastfeeding: a retrospective cohort study. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2018 Aug;38(6):745-749. Epub 2018 Mar 9. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29523035/
- Rabow, S., Hjorth, U., Schönbeck, S. et al. Effects of oxytocin and anaesthesia on vascular tone in pregnant women: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study using non-invasive pulse wave analysis. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 18, 453 (2018).
- Cochran, D. M., Fallon, D., Hill, M., & Frazier, J. A. (2013). The role of oxytocin in psychiatric disorders: a review of biological and therapeutic research findings. Harvard review of psychiatry, 21(5), 219–247. https://doi.org/10.1097/HRP.0b013e3182a75b7d