Certificate of Analysis
High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Alpha melanocyte stimulating hormones (a-MSH) is a melanocyte stimulating hormone, or melanotropin. a-MSH is an endogenous peptide hormone, composed of 13 amino acids, and considered to play a role in metabolic function, as well as other biological processes. Scientists were able to isolate a fragment of this protein hormone and identify its biological action, naming it KPV peptide. KVP is composed of three amino acids namely Lysine, Proline, and Valine. (1) This peptide is a C-terminal fragment of the a-MSH protein hormone, which is considered to be the primary amino acid sequence in the hormone that is responsible for its properties (2).
A study (2) was published in 1989 explaining how the tripeptide was isolated and how its biological potential was determined. Upon discovering that the COOH terminal peptide in the a-MSH hormone is the primary amino acid messenger sequence, scientists conducted preliminary research to determine if KVP might prevent excessive increase in vasopermeability and excessive swelling of blood vessels. As a part of the study, scientists isolated KPV peptide and presented it to experimental mice to determine its potential to mitigate swelling in their ears. After completion of study, it was reported by the researchers that the isolated fragment appeared to inhibit the swelling. KVP’s potential anti-inflammatory action may be induced by inactivating the inflammatory pathways. (3) It may also possibly inhibit the synthesis and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine cells in intestinal and immune cells.
Research and Clinical Studies
KVP Peptide and Intestinal Protection
A study (4) was conducted on mouse models to determine the potential of the peptide on the intestinal inflammation. The experiment was conducted on mice induced with bowel disfunction. These experimental mice were divided into two groups, one was given the peptide and the other the placebo. After the study, the peptide mice exhibited apparently robust results, with reported reduced inflammatory cells and anti-enzymatic symptoms.
Another study (5) was conducted on a mouse model with inflamed intestine that was given a compound of KVP and a chemical called hyaluronic acid. This chemical induced compound was given to the mid mice, with the added chemical intended to aid targeted delivery of the peptide to specific locations in the intestine. The results reported mitigated swelling in the intestine.
KVP Peptide and Intestinal Cells
This study (6) was conducted on the cell culture comprised of inflamed intestinal cells. The main purpose of this study was to determine the potential of the compound against inflammation. Inflamed intestinal cells from test subjects were isolated and given either KPV or placebo. Upon receiving the peptide, these cells were examined and results indicated that even nanomolar concentrations of the peptide appeared to lead to anti-inflammatory results. The researchers suggested that the KPV peptide appeared to mainly act via PepT1 expression in these intestinal cells, suggesting that PepT1 plays a role in transporting the peptide to the site of inflammation.
KVP Peptide and Antipyretic Properties
In a 1984 study (7), rabbits were given KVP peptide to examine its potential action on the nervous system. Following the study, researchers suggested that the peptide showed antipyretic properties reducing the body temperature to optimal levels.
KVP Peptide and Swelling of the Ears Studies
A comparative study analysis (9) was conducted to demonstrate the potential of a-MSH and KPV on the swelling (inflammation) of organs. An experiment was conducted on the mice with swollen ears due to skin rashes and dermatitis. The mice were divided in two groups – one was given an irritant (to induce ear swelling) and peptide, and the other with the irritant and a-MSH molecule. After 24 hours, both groups exhibited apparently equal improvement in reducing the swelling of ears. After 2 weeks, researchers ceased the compound, and only the irritant was given, with the results stating that a-MSH mice exhibited continued reduced swelling compared to the other group.
KVP Peptide and Wound Healing
Wound healing is a complex biological process comprised of three general phases namely – inflammation, proliferation and remodeling of the skin, tissue, or cells. This process is characterized by different types of cells and concentrations of cytokines in the wounded area. Though every wound and associated cells affected by the wound may differ, most of the cells possess a receptor called melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R). This receptor is where the a-MSH hormone binds, and researchers suggest that a-MSH hormone analogues such as KPV peptide may also bind to these receptors (10).
KVP Peptide and Scar Formation
A study (12) was conducted to further understand the potential of peptide in scar recovery. In an experiment with mice, half of the group of young mice were given KVP, and the other was a control group. Half an hour later, these mice were subjected to two 6.5 mm wide hole formation on their dorsal skin, under anesthesia. The wound healing and scar formation was then analyzed on days 3, 7, 40, and 60. On days 3 and 7, it was observed by the researchers that the peptide mice appeared to show improved healing on the skin, possibly due to reduced levels of inflammatory cells such as leukocytes and mast cells. On days 40 and 60, it was observed that the peptide mice exhibited a lesser scar area than the control group.
KVP peptide is available for research and laboratory purposes only. Please review and adhere to our Terms and Conditions before ordering.
(1) Dalmasso, G., Charrier-Hisamuddin, L., Nguyen, H. T., Yan, Y., Sitaraman, S., & Merlin, D. (2008). PepT1-mediated tripeptide KPV uptake reduces intestinal inflammation. Gastroenterology, 134(1), 166–178. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2007.10.026
(2) Hiltz ME, Lipton JM. Antiinflammatory activity of a COOH-terminal fragment of the neuropeptide alpha-MSH. FASEB J. 1989 Sep;3(11):2282-4. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2550304/
(3) Brzoska T, Luger TA, Maaser C, Abels C, Böhm M. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and related tripeptides: biochemistry, antiinflammatory and protective effects in vitro and in vivo, and future perspectives for the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Endocr Rev. 2008 Aug;29(5):581-602. doi: 10.1210/er.2007-0027. Epub 2008 Jul 8. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18612139/
(4) Klaus Kannengiesser, MD, Christian Maaser, MD, Jan Heidemann, MD, Andreas Luegering, MD, Matthias Ross, MD, Thomas Brzoska, PhD, Markus Bohm, MD, Thomas A. Luger, MD, Wolfram Domschke, MD, Torsten Kucharzik, MD, Melanocortin-derived tripeptide KPV has anti-inflammatory potential in murine models of inflammatory bowel disease, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Volume 14, Issue 3, 1 March 2008, Pages 324–331, https://doi.org/10.1002/ibd.20334
(5) Klaus Kannengiesser, MD, Christian Maaser, MD, Jan Heidemann, MD, Andreas Luegering, MD, Matthias Ross, MD, Thomas Brzoska, PhD, Markus Bohm, MD, Thomas A. Luger, MD, Wolfram Domschke, MD, Torsten Kucharzik, MD, Melanocortin-derived tripeptide KPV has anti-inflammatory potential in murine models of inflammatory bowel disease, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Volume 14, Issue 3, 1 March 2008, Pages 324–331. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28143741/
(6) Dalmasso G, Charrier-Hisamuddin L, Nguyen HT, Yan Y, Sitaraman S, Merlin D. PepT1-mediated tripeptide KPV uptake reduces intestinal inflammation. Gastroenterology. 2008 Jan;134(1):166-78. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18061177/
(7) D.B. Richards, J.M. Lipton, Effect of α-MSH 11–13 (lysine-proline-valine) on fever in the rabbit, Peptides, Volume 5, Issue 4, 1984, Pages 815-817, ISSN 0196-9781, https://doi.org/10.1016/0196-9781(84)90027-5
(8) Luger TA, Brzoska T. alpha-MSH related peptides: a new class of anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating drugs. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007 Nov;66 Suppl 3(Suppl 3):iii52-5. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17934097/
(9) Luger, T. A., & Brzoska, T. (2007). alpha-MSH related peptides: a new class of anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating drugs. Annals of the rheumatic diseases, 66 Suppl 3(Suppl 3), iii52–iii55. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2095288/#!po=3.33333
(10) Brzoska T, Luger TA, Maaser C, Abels C, Böhm M. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and related tripeptides: biochemistry, antiinflammatory and protective effects in vitro and in vivo, and future perspectives for the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Endocr Rev. 2008 Aug;29(5):581-602. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18612139/
(11) Cutuli M, Cristiani S, Lipton JM, Catania A. Antimicrobial effects of alpha-MSH peptides. J Leukoc Biol. 2000 Feb;67(2):233-9. doi: 10.1002/jlb.67.2.233. PMID: 10670585. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10670585/
(12) de Souza KS, Cantaruti TA, Azevedo GM Jr, Galdino DA, Rodrigues CM, Costa RA, Vaz NM, Carvalho CR. Improved cutaneous wound healing after intraperitoneal injection of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Exp Dermatol. 2015 Mar;24(3):198-203. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25431356/
(13) Brzoska T, Böhm M, Lügering A, Loser K, Luger TA. Terminal signal: anti-inflammatory effects of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone related peptides beyond the pharmacophore. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2010;681:107-16. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21222263/
(14) Stephen Gettin et al, Dissection of the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of the Core and C-Terminal (KPV) -Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Peptides, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, September 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.103.051623
(15) Pawar K, Kolli CS, Rangari VK, Babu RJ. Transdermal Iontophoretic Delivery of Lysine-Proline-Valine (KPV) Peptide Across Microporated Human Skin. J Pharm Sci. 2017 Jul;106(7):1814-1820. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28343991/
NOTE: These products are intended for laboratory research use only. KPV for sale is not intended for personal use. Please review and adhere to our Terms and Conditions before ordering.
Dr. Marinov (MD, Ph.D.) is a researcher and chief assistant professor in Preventative Medicine & Public Health. Prior to his professorship, Dr. Marinov practiced preventative, evidence-based medicine with an emphasis on Nutrition and Dietetics. He is widely published in international peer-reviewed scientific journals and specializes in peptide therapy research.