GHK Basic (Tripeptide-1) (topical) (200mg)
Contents: GHK Basic (Tripeptide-1)
Form: Lyophilized powder
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GHK Basic (Tripeptide-1) (topical)
GHK Basic is a tripeptide composed of glycine, histidine, and lysine amino acids. It is a naturally occurring tripeptide in plasma, urine, saliva, and other fluids. GHK is produced by various cells in the body, including fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and macrophages. It is also found in high concentrations in platelets and certain tissues, such as the liver and brain. GHK appears to have a high affinity to copper and may regulate numerous biological processes, including wound healing, tissue repair, and immune response.
GHK also has been suggested to have a role in regulating ion channels, enzymes, receptors, and gene expression. The levels of GHK in the body change with age, and it has been suggested that these changes contribute to aging. This may result in impaired tissue repair and regeneration and a decline in immune function. GHK may stimulate collagen production and play a role in wound healing and skin health. GHK may also have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Molecular formula: C14H24N6O4
Molecular weight: 340.38
Other known titles: Glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine, Tripeptide 1, NSC 379527, Copper peptide
Research and Clinical Studies
GHK Basic Peptide and Wound Healing
GHK has been primarily studied for its potential in wound healing. One clinical study evaluated GHK in subjects with diabetic neuropathic ulcers.(1) The subjects were enrolled in a wound care protocol, and GHK was reported to increase ulcer closure compared to the vehicle. Larger plantar ulcers had a more pronounced enhancement of closure, with the incidence of ulcer infections reportedly lower in the GHK group. The scientists highlighted that the “incidence of ulcer infections was significantly lower (7% incidence compared with 34% for vehicle, p < 0.05) in the plantar ulcers treated immediately after debridement.”
Animal studies also suggest the potential of GHK in rapid wound healing. A study compared the effects of GHK on wound healing with untreated control wounds in rabbits.(2) The wounds were evaluated daily, and planimetry was performed on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 to measure the unhealed wound area and the percentage of total wound healing. Results indicated that the GHK group exhibited greater neutrophil and vessel counts than the control group.
Another study also aimed to evaluate the effects of GHK on the healing of ischemic open wounds in rats.(3) The GHK group appeared to exhibit a significant decrease in wound area compared to the control group. Wounds treated with GHK were reported to contain lower concentrations of the pro-inflammatory markers TNF-alpha, MMP-2, and MMP-9.
GHK Basic Peptide and Skin
GHK may help speed up healing and reduce wrinkles in the skin thanks to its ability to stimulate collagen production.(4) A clinical study reported that GHK appeared to improve collagen production and stimulated dermal keratinocyte proliferation under specific research conditions.(5) The studies also reported an apparent increase in skin thickness, improved skin hydration, and smoothing by stimulating collagen synthesis, skin elasticity, and increased production of type 1 collagen.
Another clinical study evaluated the efficacy of GHK for managing CO2 laser-resurfaced skin - a procedure that removes the epidermis and heats up the derma.(6) 13 subjects were randomly assigned to receive either post-procedure skin regimens with or without GHK. While there was no statistically significant difference in erythema resolution, both groups were reported to experience improvement in wrinkles and overall skin quality. Furthermore, subjects using GHK reported higher satisfaction with post-treatment improvement in overall skin quality than those without.
GHK Basic Peptide and Inflammation, Oxidative Stres
GHK may have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that protect cells from damage caused by active radicals and lipid peroxidation. Studies report that the peptide may inactivate damaging free radicals that are by-products of lipid peroxidation and UV-light exposure.(7) The specific radicals reported by the researchers included 4-hydroxynoneal, acrolein, malondialdehyde, and others. Furthermore, GHK may completely block the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins. Additionally, GHK was suggested to have potential action in reducing iron release from ferritin, a lipid peroxidation catalyst. Researchers report that GHK may reduce the formation of iron complexes in damaged tissues and thus reduces inflammation.(8) The study suggested that GHK acts by binding to the channels of ferritin involved in the iron release and may physically reduce the release of Fe by a reported 87%, which in turn may prevent inflammation and oxidation in damaged tissues.
The anti-inflammatory potential of GHK may also extend to organs such as the lungs. One animal trial investigated the effects of GHK on lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation in mice.(9) The study suggested that GHK may reduce the production of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines while increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. It also may suppress the activation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, decreasing TNF-1 and IL-6 production. Furthermore, the researchers reported that GHK appeared to attenuate lung histological alterations and reduce inflammatory damage in the lungs of mice with lung damage. The scientists reported that the peptide “suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lung parenchyma in LPS-induced ALI in mice.”
GHK may also help reduce the oxidative stress caused by smoking. Scientists reported that GHK appeared to inhibit oxidative stress in alveolar epithelial cells by upregulating Nrf2 expression.(10) A study investigated the potential of GHK to reduce levels of reactive oxygen species in cell cultures.(11) The researchers suggested that the GHK effect on the signal of hydroxyl radicals may be stronger than those of other well-known antioxidative, endogenous peptides, such as carnosine and reduced glutathione.
GHK Basic peptide is available for research and laboratory purposes only. Please review and adhere to our Terms and Conditions before ordering.
- Mulder, G. D., Patt, L. M., Sanders, L., Rosenstock, J., Altman, M. I., Hanley, M. E., & Duncan, G. W. (1994). Enhanced healing of ulcers in patients with diabetes by topical treatment with glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine copper. Wound repair and regeneration : official publication of the Wound Healing Society [and] the European Tissue Repair Society, 2(4), 259–269. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1524-475X.1994.20406.x
- Gul, N. Y., Topal, A., Cangul, I. T., & Yanik, K. (2008). The effects of topical tripeptide copper complex and helium-neon laser on wound healing in rabbits. Veterinary dermatology, 19(1), 7–14. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3164.2007.00647.x
- Canapp, S. O., Jr, Farese, J. P., Schultz, G. S., Gowda, S., Ishak, A. M., Swaim, S. F., Vangilder, J., Lee-Ambrose, L., & Martin, F. G. (2003). The effect of topical tripeptide-copper complex on healing of ischemic open wounds. Veterinary surgery : VS, 32(6), 515–523. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-950x.2003.00515.x
- Maquart, F. X., Pickart, L., Laurent, M., Gillery, P., Monboisse, J. C., & Borel, J. P. (1988). Stimulation of collagen synthesis in fibroblast cultures by the tripeptide-copper complex glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine-Cu2+. FEBS letters, 238(2), 343–346. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(88)80509-x
- Abdulghani, A. A., Sherr, A., Shirin, S., Solodkina, G., Tapia, E. M., Wolf, B., & Gottlieb, A. B. (1998). Effects of topical creams containing vitamin C, a copper-binding peptide cream and melatonin compared with tretinoin on the ultrastructure of normal skin-A pilot clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural study. Disease Management and Clinical Outcomes, 4(1), 136-141.
- Miller, T. R., Wagner, J. D., Baack, B. R., & Eisbach, K. J. (2006). Effects of topical copper tripeptide complex on CO2 laser-resurfaced skin. Archives of facial plastic surgery, 8(4), 252–259. https://doi.org/10.1001/archfaci.8.4.252
- Cebrián, J., Messeguer, A., Facino, R. M., & García Antón, J. M. (2005). New anti-RNS and -RCS products for cosmetic treatment. International journal of cosmetic science, 27(5), 271–278. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2494.2005.00279.x
- Miller, D. M., DeSilva, D., Pickart, L., & Aust, S. D. (1990). Effects of glycyl-histidyl-lysyl chelated Cu(II) on ferritin dependent lipid peroxidation. Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 264, 79–84. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-5730-8_11
- Park, J. R., Lee, H., Kim, S. I., & Yang, S. R. (2016). The tri-peptide GHK-Cu complex ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice. Oncotarget, 7(36), 58405–58417. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.11168
- Zhang, Q., Yan, L., Lu, J., & Zhou, X. (2022). Glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine-Cu2+ attenuates cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema and inflammation by reducing oxidative stress pathway. Frontiers in molecular biosciences, 9, 925700. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2022.925700
- Sakuma, S., Ishimura, M., Yuba, Y., Itoh, Y., & Fujimoto, Y. (2018). The peptide glycyl-ʟ-histidyl-ʟ-lysine is an endogenous antioxidant in living organisms, possibly by diminishing hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals. International journal of physiology, pathophysiology and pharmacology, 10(3), 132–138.