Certificate of Analysis
High Performance Liquid Chromatography
Adipotide Peptide (FTPP)
Adipotide Peptide, also known as FTPP peptide, fat-targeted proapoptotic peptide, or proapoptotic peptide, has been widely researched, and is considered by scientists to be a proapoptotic peptide that may contribute to cell apoptosis. Adipotide may possibly act as a prohibitin-targeting peptide, and current research is still exploring its potential in this area (1). Prohibitins are natural proteins considered by scientists to regulate such functions as cell formation, metabolism, and inflammation.
Adipotide was initially considered by research teams for its supposed potential in mitigating the action of cancer cells, but the peptide indicated potential during laboratory analysis in lyposis and obesity-mitigation, leaving the research pioneers “at a loss of words.” (2) It was presumed that Adipotide might prevent blood supply to the carcinogenic cells, resulting in carcinogenic cell death and growth inhibition. Upon further research, it was suggested by the scientists that the peptide appeared to exhibit the same mechanism of action, but on fat cells instead. Finding this interesting, the researchers called the study a “proof of concept,” adding that the peptide would have to be studied further to understand its full potential and impact on cells.
Researchers isolated a naturally occurring peptide (sequence CKGGRAKDC) via phage display methodology and combined it with a proapoptotic sequence, forming the now termed Adipotide compound. Adipotide is homologous to the peptide sequence found in the white adipose tissue. Owing to this development and characteristics, researchers suggest that the peptide may possibly target the prohibitin PHB1 found at the surface of the adipose tissue – possibly attaching and thereby damaging them, resulting in blood supply disruption to the adipocytes (fat forming cells). (1) Prohibitins are considered by scientists to act as a vascular marker of the fatty tissues and Adipotide may possibly be able to identify these markers and conduct apoptosis on these cells. (3)
It was assumed that Adipotide might essentially burst fat cells, which could be a point of concern as burst cells might potentially cause a rapid influx of fat cells into the bloodstream leading to metabolism disruption and increased appetite. Adipotide appears to burn these fat cells as fuel, according to researchers’ speculations. (2)
Based on the early preclinical studies on monkeys, it was reported that following Adipotide presentation, the monkeys exhibited apparently high insulin resistance. Generic anti-carcinogenic compounds appear to work by the same mechanism as that of Adipotide i.e., possibly via inhibition of angiogenesis. (4)
Research and Clinical Studies
Adipotide Peptide Initial Research
To evaluate the potential of the compound, Adipotide was given to three different species of Old White monkeys daily for four weeks. No deliberate changes were made to their diet or exercise routine. After the study, it was reported by the researchers that the monkeys apparently lost about 11% of their body weight and 39% of the fat deposits in their bodies. (5) However, there was one key issue reported pertaining to the compound – mild renal dysfunction, as reported across four study groups, A, B, C, and D. Serum creatinine levels apparently increased in studies A and B, however, upon discontinuation of the peptide, these returned to optimal levels. Whereas the BUN levels appeared to remain unchanged in dose finding study C while it fluctuated in the fixed dose study D.
Adipotide Peptide and Carcinogenic Cells
Scientists surveyed a number of blood vessels and tissues (both normal and carcinogenic), and isolated and studied the various peptides and molecules distributed in them. Peptide, protein, and certain molecular distribution are considered to be non-random and differentially expressed in normal and cancer tissues under control conditions. Through various chemical isolation and analytical techniques, researchers noted four native ligand receptors that appeared to be specific to certain types of carcinogenic cells. These receptors could in turn be the vascular markets, and Adipotide was suggested by the researchers to exert some mitigation of the action of these receptors. (6)
Adipotide Peptide and Diabetes
In these studies, obese mice were given Adipotide to explore its potential mechanism on obese cells. It was noted by the research team that within 2 to 3 days of the experiment, the mice appeared to exhibit improved glucose tolerance and decreased levels of serum triglycerides. It was initially assumed by the researchers that Adipotide might works via apoptosis, possibly damaging the vascular tissues and leading to its impaired functionality. However, even though Adipotide appeared to reduce the fat tissue cell mass, following the study, researchers suggested it to improvise its functioning resulting in improved hormone secretion and gene expression. (7)
Adipotide peptide is available for research and laboratory purposes only. Please review and adhere to our Terms and Conditions before ordering.
1. Thuaud, F., Ribeiro, N., Nebigil, C. G., & Désaubry, L. (2013). Prohibitin ligands in cell death and survival: mode of action and therapeutic potential. Chemistry & biology, 20(3), 316–331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chembiol.2013.02.006
2. Melissa H., Cancer treatment shows promise for rapid weight loss, Los Angeles Times, 10 Nov 2011. https://www.latimes.com/local/la-xpm-2011-nov-10-la-he-drug-fat-loss-20111110-story.html
3. Kolonin, Mikhail G et al. “Reversal of obesity by targeted ablation of adipose tissue.” Nature medicine vol. 10,6 (2004): 625-32. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15133506/
4. Experimental Drug Slims Obese Monkeys https://www.cbsnews.com/news/porky-primates-may-help-hefty-humans-slim-down/
5. Barnhart, Kirstin F et al. “A peptidomimetic targeting white fat causes weight loss and improved insulin resistance in obese monkeys.” Science translational medicine vol. 3,108 (2011): 108ra112. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3002621. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22072637/
6. Staquicini, Fernanda I et al. “Vascular ligand-receptor mapping by direct combinatorial selection in cancer patients.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 108,46 (2011): 18637-42. doi:10.1073/pnas.1114503108. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22049339/
7. Kim, Dong-Hoon et al. “Rapid and weight-independent improvement of glucose tolerance induced by a peptide designed to elicit apoptosis in adipose tissue endothelium.” Diabetes vol. 61,9 (2012): 2299-310. doi:10.2337/db11-1579. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22733798/
8. Arrowhead Announces Dosing of First Patient with Anti-Obesity Treatment Adipotide® in a Phase 1 Clinical Trial, 11 Jul 2012. https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20120711005485/en/
9. Drug profile – Prohibitin targeting peptide 1 (adipotide; prohibitin – TP01). https://adisinsight.springer.com/drugs/800035229
10. Kolonin, Mikhail G et al. “Reversal of obesity by targeted ablation of adipose tissue.” Nature medicine vol. 10,6 (2004): 625-32. doi:10.1038/nm1048. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15133506/
Adipotide Latest Post
Read in more detail in our Adipotide (FTPP) blog post.
NOTE: These products are intended for laboratory research use only. Adipotide for sale is not intended for personal use. Please review our Terms and Conditions before ordering.
Dr. Marinov (MD, Ph.D.) is a researcher and chief assistant professor in Preventative Medicine & Public Health. Prior to his professorship, Dr. Marinov practiced preventative, evidence-based medicine with an emphasis on Nutrition and Dietetics. He is widely published in international peer-reviewed scientific journals and specializes in peptide therapy research.