Guide to DSIP Peptide
Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide, or DSIP, is a synthetic peptide developed to regulate several body systems and maintain normal endogenous functions. DSIP may not only regulate a healthy sleep cycle, as suggested by its name but may also plays a vital role in regulating various physiological processes. DSIP is a nine amino acid-containing nonapeptide, endogenously found in neurons, plasma, and peripheral organs. Known to induce delta sleep in mammals, this neuropeptide also appears to affect electrophysiological activity in the body and regulate the neurotransmitter levels in the brain. Furthermore, it may regulate hormonal levels and psychological performance, affecting the working of various neuropharmacological medicines. (1)
DSIP peptide was first characterized and examined during the years 1963 to 1977 and has since been widely studied by scientists. (2) The Schoenenberger Monnier group first isolated it in 1977 from the cerebral venous blood of rabbits. (3) Initially regarded only for its potential as a sleep-including factor, DSIP was soon suggested to possess other benefits and potential uses in therapeutic fields, such as treating pain, sleeplessness, and withdrawal. In 1984, a DSIP-like material was also detected in human breast milk with an almost 90% recovery rate. It is known that the naturally found milk proteins are easily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract of infants. However, it is not known whether DSIP-like material affects the sleep cycle of infants (4).
DSIP Peptide Overview
The Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide (DSIP) has been widely researched by scientists, to validate its growing theoretical potential to treat a number of medical conditions and bodily discomforts. Below are the proposed peptide benefits as suggested by researchers:
- May regulate slow wave sleep (SWS) cycle
- May play a role in endocrine regulation and hormone release
- May reduce stress
- May maintain blood pressure and heart contraction
- May possess antioxidant effects
- May relieve pain
- May have potential anti-carcinogenic agent
- May have potential in the treatment of epilepsy
- May regulate neuronal activity
- May be an effective agent to treat withdrawal symptoms
Research and Clinical Studies
DSIP Peptide and Sleep Cycle In Animals
A study (8) was conducted on cats to examine the effects of DSIP on their sleep pattern. 10 cats were divided into two groups, one was administered with control and the other with a single dose of DSIP, dependent on body weight. The peptide was administered into the lateral ventricle of the cats and was monitored for 8 hours. Results noted that there appeared to be a significant increase in total sleep and slow wave sleep (SWS) cycle following peptide administration. SWS is the third phase of the sleep cycle which is characterized by deep sleep with no non-rapid eye movement (NREM). The effects of DSIP appeared to be immediate as the amount of SWS sleep elevated within the first hour following administration. This increase appeared to be maintained for 7 hours, and then decreased in the eighth hour. This result suggested there was a direct correlation between DSIP administration and deep, SWS sleep pattern.
DSIP Peptide and Sleep Cycle In Humans
This study (15) was carried out on 6 healthy volunteers (4 males and 2 females) who were each administered body weight-dependent dosages of DSIP in the morning. All volunteers were under intensive observations throughout the study period. All volunteers reported feeling increased sleep pressure immediately after administration, with a 59% increased sleep within 2 hours of administration. There was a reduced percentage of stage 1 sleep (i.e. sleep onset) with more stage 3 sleep (i.e. deep sleep), thereby increasing sleep efficiency and supporting the hypothetical efficacy of the peptide.
DSIP Peptide and Endocrine Regulation
In this study (9), rats were administered with DSIP to examine the effects of the peptide on the endocrine system. Within 30 minutes of administration, it was noted that the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) appeared to be significantly elevated, whereas there was no perceived impact to the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Studies similar to this one have suggested that DSIP administration may lead to increased secretion of somatotropin hormones, and decreased levels of corticotropin hormones in the body. (7) These results indicate that DSIP may potentially act on the hypothalamus to regulate hormonal secretion and may possibly be used to treat and regulate the hormone deficiencies in humans. However, further studies are still ongoing to confirm the safety and efficacy of DSIP for human treatments.
DSIP Peptide and Stress
The goal of this study (10) was to evaluate the effects of DSIP on stress hormones in the body. This study was carried out on rats who were experimentally induced with stress by tying their tails in a special cage during night time. These stress experiments were conducted for 12 hours for five days. The rats were divided into 6 groups, where the control group was administered with placebo and the rest were administered with DSIP. The six groups included (i) control group, (ii) stress group, (iii) group administered with DSIP one hour before stress experiments, (iv) administered 24 hours before stress experiments, (v) administered one hour before the last stress experiment and (vi) administered 24 hours before the last stress experiment. The control group was administered with placebo, whereas the remaining rats were administered with DSIP at predetermined time intervals.
The results of the study observed that DSIP administration appeared to lead to elevated levels of endorphins and corticosterone hormones, which are stress reducing hormones, in the hypothalamus and plasma. The earlier the DSIP peptide was administered, the better were the effects appeared to be on reducing stress. This suggested that DSIP may trigger a cascade of processes in the system, inducing secretion of hormones and oligopeptides in the brain, which may thereby lead to better coping of stress.
DSIP Peptide and Anti-Carcinogenic Properties
A study (11) was conducted on 108 female rats who were equally divided into two groups, one that was administered with saline (control) and the other that was administered with DSIP. All the mice were administered with either saline or DSIP right from the age of 3 months until their natural deaths. Doses were administered for 5 consecutive days each month. The results of the study indicated that DSIP administration not appear to influence food intake, however it did apparently decrease the body weight of the mice. It appeared to decrease the chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow by 23% and improve the life span by 24% compared to the control group. Moreover, DSIP also appeared to lead to 2.5-fold decrease of the tumor incidents, mainly in mice suffering from leukemia and mammary gland carcinomas. This was one of the first studies to support the theory that DSIP may exhibit geroprotective and anti-carcinogenic properties.
DSIP Peptide and Multivariate Properties
Various other research studies are still ongoing to fully understand the scope of this peptide. DSIP, which was at first understood to only possess sleep inducing potential, has since shown a broad spectrum of possible properties and various studies have suggested its multivariate effects, including its effect on heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature regulation, and pain threshold modification. (12)
In a study (13) conducted on children aged between 3 to 16 years, it was suggested that neurological impairment, specifically in the bioelectrical activity, induced by chemotherapy was reduced upon the administration of DSIP. In another study (14), it was seen that when DSIP was administered in patients suffering from opioid and alcohol dependence withdrawal symptoms, it appeared to ameliorate the withdrawal symptoms in almost 90% of these patients. In vitro studies (7) have indicated that DSIP may penetrate through the blood brain barrier in the nervous system and thereby induce many effects in the brain. There is a specific aminopeptidase enzyme that appears to act on the DSIP peptide, shortening its half-life to 15 minutes. Endogenous DSIP may have the ability to bind with larger proteins and form a complex, thereby protecting itself from enzymatic lysis and increasing its half-life. However, studies are still ongoing to determine which protein it binds with in order to exhibit these proposed multivariate effects in the body.
DSIP Peptide and Antioxidant Effects
A study (5) was conducted on rats aged 2 to 24 months to examine the mechanism of DSIP peptide in vivo. Upon analysis, it was reported that DSIP may inhibit the levels of malonic dialdehyde in the rat tissues and plasma. Malonic dialdehyde is a byproduct of lipid peroxidation, and increased levels of malonic dialdehyde induce increased oxidative stress in the body. This result suggested that DSIP may prevent lipid peroxidation in the rat body, which in turn may execute antioxidant effects. DSIP may also stimulate the endogenous antioxidant system, influencing various enzymatic levels in the body. As organisms age, these antioxidant functions of the body decline, and therefore upon DSIP administration, these antioxidant levels may be elevated, exerting geroprotective effects.
DSIP Peptide and Neurological Effects on the Brain
A study (6) was carried out on male rats, the results of which suggested that DSIP administration led to the activation of neuronal activity in the brain cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus regions. Upon analysis, it was suggested that the neuronal activity in the brain stimulated by DSIP may be mediated via NMDA receptors found in the brain. Studies are still ongoing to determine the mode of action via which DSIP produces effects on the neurological system.
DSIP Peptide Safety Profile
Clinical studies in humans are still ongoing and we are far from establishing a long term safety profile of the peptide as well as defining side effects, if any. Nevertheless, studies conducted to date have provided initial evidence to suggest that the peptide is well tolerated with no adverse psychological or physiological effects. While no side effects have been clinically proven yet, below are listed some commonly known side effects with peptide administration:
- Itchiness and inflammation at the site of administration
- Occasional headaches
- Dizziness, lethargy
- Sleep induction
Research so far has suggested that DSIP is able to produce many effects in the body by stimulating a cascade of enzymatic effects, via NMDA receptors and due to its possible ability to pass through the blood brain barrier. The proposed health benefits of DSIP may include increased sleep efficiency (potential treatment for insomnia), reduced stress and pain, and modulation of various neurological effects. Moreover, DSIP has also been suggested to exhibit positive results in regulating opioid and alcohol withdrawal symptoms in humans. While overall DSIP has proven to be well tolerated in humans, it still remains an unsolved puzzle as scientists believe DSIP has not yet fully been studied. The peptide available here is for research and educational purposes only, and is not approved for human consumption or personal use.
1. National Center for Biotechnology Information. “PubChem Compound Summary for CID 3623358, Emideltide;delta Sleep Inducing Peptide” PubChem, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/3623358
2. Graf MV, Kastin AJ. Delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP): an update. Peptides. 1986 Nov-Dec;7(6):1165-87. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3550726/
3. Kovalzon VM, Strekalova TV. Delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP): a still unresolved riddle. J Neurochem. 2006 Apr;97(2):303-9. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16539679/
4. Graf MV, Hunter CA, Kastin AJ. Presence of delta-sleep-inducing peptide-like material in human milk. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1984 Jul;59(1):127-32. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6547144/
5. Bondarenko TI, Maĭboroda EA, Mikhaleva II, Prudchenko IA. [Mechanism of delta-sleep inducing peptide geroprotective activity]. Adv Gerontol. 2011;24(1):80-92. Russian. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21809625/
6. Sudakov KV, Umriukhin PE, Rayevsky KS. Delta-sleep inducing peptide and neuronal activity after glutamate microiontophoresis: the role of NMDA-receptors. Pathophysiology. 2004 Oct;11(2):81-86. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15364118/
7. Schoenenberger GA. Characterization, properties and multivariate functions of delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP). Eur Neurol. 1984;23(5):321-45. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6548966/
8. Susić V, Masirević G, Totić S. The effects of delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) on wakefulness and sleep patterns in the cat. Brain Res. 1987 Jun 30;414(2):262-70. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3620931/
9. Iyer KS, McCann SM. Delta sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) stimulates the release of LH but not FSH via a hypothalamic site of action in the rat. Brain Res Bull. 1987 Nov;19(5):535-8. doi: 10.1016/0361-9230(87)90069-4. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3121137/
10. Sudakov KV, Coghlan JP, Kotov AV, Salieva RM, Polyntsev YuV, Koplik EV. Delta-sleep-inducing peptide sequels in the mechanisms of resistance to emotional stress. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 Dec 29;771:240-51. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8597403/
11. Popovich IG, Voitenkov BO, Anisimov VN, Ivanov VT, Mikhaleva II, Zabezhinski MA, Alimova IN, Baturin DA, Zavarzina NY, Rosenfeld SV, Semenchenko AV, Yashin AI. Effect of delta-sleep inducing peptide-containing preparation Deltaran on biomarkers of aging, life span and spontaneous tumor incidence in female SHR mice. Mech Ageing Dev. 2003 Jun;124(6). https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12782416/
12. Yehuda S, Carasso RL. DSIP–a tool for investigating the sleep onset mechanism: a review. Int J Neurosci. 1988 Feb;38(3-4):345-53. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3286557/
13. A.B. Sinyukhin, G.P. Timoshinov, V.A. Kornilov, P.D. Shabanov, P.7.a.006 Delta sleep-inducing peptide analogue corrects the CNS functional state of children treated with antiblastomic therapy, European Neuropsychopharmacology, Volume 19, Supplement 3, 2009, Pages S681-S682, ISSN 0924-977X, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-977X(09)71101-0
14. Delta sleep-inducing peptide in opioid detoxification. 1 Apr 2006. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.154.5.714b
15. Schneider-Helmert D, Gnirss F, Monnier M, Schenker J, Schoenenberger GA. Acute and delayed effects of DSIP (delta sleep-inducing peptide) on human sleep behavior. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1981 Aug;19(8):341-5. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6895513/
NOTE: These products are intended for laboratory research use only. DSIP for sale is a lyophilized peptide and is not intended for personal use. Please review and adhere to our Terms and Conditions before ordering.
Dr. Marinov (MD, Ph.D.) is a researcher and chief assistant professor in Preventative Medicine & Public Health. Prior to his professorship, Dr. Marinov practiced preventative, evidence-based medicine with an emphasis on Nutrition and Dietetics. He is widely published in international peer-reviewed scientific journals and specializes in peptide therapy research.