Contents: DSIP (5mg)
Form: Lyophilized powder
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Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide
Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide, or DSIP, is a synthetic peptide developed with the intention to regulate several systems and maintain normal endogenous functions. DSIP may not only regulate sleep cycle, as suggested by its name but may also play a role in regulating various physiological processes. DSIP is a nine amino acid-containing nonapeptide, endogenously found in neurons, plasma, and peripheral organs. Suggested to induce delta sleep in mammals, this neuropeptide also appears to possibly impact electrophysiological activity and possibly regulate the neurotransmitter levels in the brain.(1)
DSIP peptide was first characterized and examined during the years 1963 to 1977 and has since been widely studied by scientists.(2) Initially regarded only for its potential as a sleep-including factor, DSIP was soon suggested to induce other potential actions, such as mitigating pain, sleep cycle regulation, and mitigating withdrawal symptoms. In 1984, a DSIP-like material was also detected in breast milk with an almost 90% recovery rate. It is suggested that the naturally produced milk proteins are easily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract of infants. However, it is not known whether DSIP-like material affects the sleep cycle of infants.(4)
Research and Clinical Studies
DSIP and Sleep Cycle In Animals
A study(8) was conducted on cats to examine the action of DSIP on their sleep pattern. 10 cats were divided into two groups, one was delivered a control and the other with DSIP, dependent on body weight. The peptide was presented to the cats and was monitored for 8 hours. Results indicated that there appeared to be a significant increase in total sleep and slow wave sleep (SWS) cycle following the peptide. SWS is the third phase of the sleep cycle which is characterized by deep sleep with no non-rapid eye movement (NREM). The action of DSIP appeared to be immediate as the amount of SWS sleep elevated within the first hour following presentation. This increase appeared to be maintained for 7 hours, and then decreased in the eighth hour.
A clinical study(15) was carried out on six test subjects who were each presented body weight-dependent concentrations of DSIP in the morning. All subjects were under intensive observations throughout the study period. All subjects reported feeling increased sleep pressure immediately after peptide presentation, with a 59% increased sleep within two hours. There was a reported reduction in the percentage of stage 1 sleep (i.e. sleep onset) with more stage 3 sleep (i.e. deep sleep).
Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide and Endocrine Regulation
In this study,(9) rats were presented with DSIP to examine the potential of the peptide on the endocrine system. Within 30 minutes, it was noted that the levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) appeared to be significantly elevated, whereas there was no perceived impact to the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Studies similar to this one have suggested that DSIP may lead to increased secretion of somatotropin hormones, and decreased levels of corticotropin hormones.(7) The researchers indicated that DSIP may potentially act on the hypothalamus to regulate hormonal secretion.
DSIP and Stress Hormone Secretion
The goal of this study(10) was to evaluate the potential action of DSIP on stress hormones. This study was carried out on rats who were experimentally induced with stress by tying their tails in a special cage during night time. These stress experiments were conducted for 12 hours for five days. The rats were divided into six groups, where the control group was presented with a placebo and the rest with DSIP. The six groups included (i) control group, (ii) stress group, (iii) group with DSIP one hour before stress experiments, (iv) DSIP 24 hours before stress experiments, (v) DSIP one hour before the last stress experiment and (vi) DSIP 24 hours before the last stress experiment. The control group was presented with placebo, whereas the remaining rats were presented with DSIP at predetermined time intervals.
The results of the study observed that DSIP appeared to lead to elevated levels of endorphins and corticosterone hormones, which are considered by scientists to be stress reducing hormones, in the hypothalamus and plasma. The earlier the DSIP peptide was given, the better were the apparent action, as the peptide appeared to positively correlate to stress reduction.
DSIP and Anti-Carcinogenic Properties
A study(11) was conducted on 108 female rats who were equally divided into two groups, one that was given saline (control) and the other with DSIP. All the mice were presented with either saline or DSIP right from the age of 3 months until their natural deaths. These compounds were given for 5 consecutive days each month. The results of the study indicated that DSIP not appear to influence food intake, however it did apparently decrease the weight of the mice. It appeared to decrease the chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow by 23% and improve the life span by 24% compared to the control group. Moreover, DSIP also appeared to lead to 2.5-fold decrease of the tumor incidents, mainly in mice with leukemia and mammary gland carcinomas.
Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide and Multivariate Properties
Various other research studies are still ongoing to fully understand the scope of this peptide. DSIP, which was at first understood to only possess sleep inducing potential, has since shown a broad spectrum of possible properties and various studies have suggested its multivariate actions, including on heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature regulation, and pain threshold modification.(12)
In a clinical study(13) conducted on subjects aged between 3 to 16 years, it was suggested that neurological impairment, specifically in the bioelectrical activity, induced by chemotherapy was reduced upon presentation of DSIP. In another study,(14) it was suggested that when DSIP was delivered to subjects suffering from opioid and alcohol dependence withdrawal symptoms, it appeared to ameliorate the withdrawal symptoms in almost 90% of these subjects. Additional studies(7) have indicated that DSIP may penetrate through the blood brain barrier in the nervous system and thereby induce many actions in the brain. There is a specific aminopeptidase enzyme that appears to act on the DSIP peptide, shortening its half-life to 15 minutes. Endogenous DSIP may have the ability to bind with larger proteins and form a complex, thereby protecting itself from enzymatic lysis and increasing its half-life. However, studies are still ongoing to determine which protein it binds with in order to exhibit these proposed multivariate properties.
DSIP and Antioxidant Properties
A study(5) was conducted on rats aged 2 to 24 months to examine the potential mechanism of DSIP peptide. Upon analysis, it was reported that DSIP may inhibit the levels of malonic dialdehyde in the rat tissues and plasma. Malonic dialdehyde is a byproduct of lipid peroxidation, and increased levels of malonic dialdehyde typically induce increased oxidative stress in the body. This result suggested that DSIP may prevent lipid peroxidation in the rat, which in turn may execute antioxidant properties. DSIP may also stimulate the endogenous antioxidant system, influencing various enzymatic levels.
Delta Sleep-Inducing Peptide and Neurological Potential
A study(6) was carried out on male rats, the results of which suggested that DSIP may lead to the activation of neuronal activity in the brain cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus regions. Upon analysis, it was suggested that the neuronal activity in the brain stimulated by DSIP may be mediated via NMDA receptors found in the brain. Studies are still ongoing to determine the mode of action via which DSIP produces action on the neurological system.
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- National Center for Biotechnology Information. "PubChem Compound Summary for CID 3623358, Emideltide;delta Sleep Inducing Peptide" PubChem, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/3623358
- Graf MV, Kastin AJ. Delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP): an update. Peptides. 1986 Nov-Dec;7(6):1165-87. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3550726/
- Kovalzon VM, Strekalova TV. Delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP): a still unresolved riddle. J Neurochem. 2006 Apr;97(2):303-9. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16539679/
- Graf MV, Hunter CA, Kastin AJ. Presence of delta-sleep-inducing peptide-like material in human milk. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1984 Jul;59(1):127-32. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6547144/
- Bondarenko TI, Maĭboroda EA, Mikhaleva II, Prudchenko IA. [Mechanism of delta-sleep inducing peptide geroprotective activity]. Adv Gerontol. 2011;24(1):80-92. Russian. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21809625/
- Sudakov KV, Umriukhin PE, Rayevsky KS. Delta-sleep inducing peptide and neuronal activity after glutamate microiontophoresis: the role of NMDA-receptors. Pathophysiology. 2004 Oct;11(2):81-86. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15364118/
- Schoenenberger GA. Characterization, properties and multivariate functions of delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP). Eur Neurol. 1984;23(5):321-45. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6548966/
- Susić V, Masirević G, Totić S. The effects of delta-sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) on wakefulness and sleep patterns in the cat. Brain Res. 1987 Jun 30;414(2):262-70. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3620931/
- Iyer KS, McCann SM. Delta sleep inducing peptide (DSIP) stimulates the release of LH but not FSH via a hypothalamic site of action in the rat. Brain Res Bull. 1987 Nov;19(5):535-8. doi: 10.1016/0361-9230(87)90069-4. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3121137/
- Sudakov KV, Coghlan JP, Kotov AV, Salieva RM, Polyntsev YuV, Koplik EV. Delta-sleep-inducing peptide sequels in the mechanisms of resistance to emotional stress. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 Dec 29;771:240-51. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8597403/
- Popovich IG, Voitenkov BO, Anisimov VN, Ivanov VT, Mikhaleva II, Zabezhinski MA, Alimova IN, Baturin DA, Zavarzina NY, Rosenfeld SV, Semenchenko AV, Yashin AI. Effect of delta-sleep inducing peptide-containing preparation Deltaran on biomarkers of aging, life span and spontaneous tumor incidence in female SHR mice. Mech Ageing Dev. 2003 Jun;124(6). https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12782416/
- Yehuda S, Carasso RL. DSIP--a tool for investigating the sleep onset mechanism: a review. Int J Neurosci. 1988 Feb;38(3-4):345-53. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/3286557/
- A.B. Sinyukhin, G.P. Timoshinov, V.A. Kornilov, P.D. Shabanov, P.7.a.006 Delta sleep-inducing peptide analogue corrects the CNS functional state of children treated with antiblastomic therapy, European Neuropsychopharmacology, Volume 19, Supplement 3, 2009, Pages S681-S682, ISSN 0924-977X, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-977X(09)71101-0
- Delta sleep-inducing peptide in opioid detoxification. 1 Apr 2006. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.154.5.714b
- Schneider-Helmert D, Gnirss F, Monnier M, Schenker J, Schoenenberger GA. Acute and delayed effects of DSIP (delta sleep-inducing peptide) on human sleep behavior. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1981 Aug;19(8):341-5. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/6895513/