PEG-MGF (5mg)

$59.00

Size: 5mg
Contents: PEG-MGF (5mg)
Form: Lyophilized powder
Purity: >99%
SKU: P-PEGMGF-5

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PEG-MGF Peptide

MGF is an acronym for Mechano Growth Factor and is considered by scientists to belong to the class of IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor) family.(1) An isoform of IGF-1, MGF is also known as IGF-1Ec and is mainly produced in the liver.(2) The IGF-1 gene appears to undergo transcription and may generate the three mRNA isoforms: IGF-1Ea, IGF-1Eb, and IGF-1Ec. This indicates that MGF (or IGF-1Ec) may be identical to IGF-1 but with a different E domain. Synthesis of each isoform appears to possess specific functions in different tissues in response to diverse stimuli.

PEG-MGF or polyethylene glycol (PEG)-ylated MGF, is a synthetic form of MGF. Pegylation is connecting polyethylene glycol (PEG) to another compound and altering its structure. Scientists consider that MGF by itself may have a short half-life, however, once bound with PEG, the half-life may be extended a few days.

Research studies posit that PEG IGF-1 may be more impactful than recombinant IGF-1 for muscle regeneration and improving muscle function. The main reasoning was attributed to the hypothesis that PEG may not easily bind with any other compounds and may lead to the delayed clearance. In addition to this, the modification to the C terminus of IGF-1 with the addition of PEG increases the peptide's potential impact at the tissue levels.(3)

Overview

Researchers suggested the existence of three IGF-1 precursor proteins formed upon the splicing of the mature IGF-1. Each precursor is composed of 70 amino acids residue from the mature IGF-1, and may only differ in the amino acid sequence attached to the COOH terminal, which also possibly determines its function. During the late 1990s and early 2000s, it was suggested that the levels of one of the three precursors, IGF-1EC (MGF), may increase upon muscle injury.(4)

Several studies have been carried out thereafter(3) to isolate and synthesize the (PEG)-ylated MGF to modify and potentially improve the impact and action of the peptide. The studies have suggested that under muscle stress, especially during exercise, the mature IGF-1 may get spliced as a response towards stress, and may hence produce and release one of the isoforms called IGF-1EC, also known as Mechano Growth Factor (MGF).(4)

One research hypothesis suggests that as MGF increases, the amino acid sequence attached to the COOH terminal of MGF may get activated and promote cell proliferation in muscle stem cells. Further studies indicated that upon presenting PEG-MGF, it may stimulate the proliferation of C2C12 muscle cells and myoblasts. Based on these results, it was suggested that the MGF peptide may be biologically active and inert by nature. PEG-MGF may induce stronger, durable action of normal MGF.

 

Research and Clinical Studies

PEG-MGF Peptide and Muscle Structure

The main goal of this study(5) was to examine the potential of MGF on muscle repair and wound healing. Experimental mice that were induced with muscle contusion and muscular macrophage depletion were selected as study subjects. These mice were then given with MGF. Based on comprehensive analyses following the study, it was theorized by the researchers that MGF might induce muscular repair in the wounded tissues. MGF appeared to decline the rate of fibrosis in the contused muscles and reduced the expressions of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and stress factors.

PEG-MGF Peptide and Cardioprotection

The main goal of this study(7) was to evaluate the potential of MGF on cardiac muscles undergoing programmed cell death following hypoxia, which is a condition characterized by limited supply of oxygen. Rats were experimentally induced with hypoxia with only 1% oxygen supply leading to cellular apoptosis. Once the peptide was given to the test subjects, the study reported that the peptide appeared to induce increased migration of stem cells to the heart which possibly led to inhibition of apoptosis.

PEG-MGF Peptide and Bone Fracture

The main goal of this study(8) was to evaluate the potential of MGF on bone injury. 27 rabbits were experimentally induced with a 5-mm bone defect and were then divided into three groups that were given MGF, or with a placebo for 5 consecutive days. Post trial, when the bone tissues were histologically examined, it was reported by the researchers that the placebo tissue appeared to be the least healed, whereas the bone tissue with MGF appeared to be the most healed tissue.

PEG-MGF Peptide and Neuroprotection

Several studies(9) were conducted on mice who were experimented on in order to increase the levels of MGF and thereby study the action of increased MGF concentration on their brain cells. One study included breeding of mice in order to constitutively overproduce MGF in the hippocampus area of the brain. Hippocampus is considered primarily responsible for regulating the neurogenesis phenomenon in the body. This overproduction of MGF appeared to result in high concentrations of BrdU, which is considered a biological marker representative of proliferative action.

Another study was conducted where mice were bred to conditional MGF production at 1, 3 and 12 months old. Behavioral analysis and biological responses were examined after 2 years. These mice were reported to exhibit elevated levels of BrdU and neurogenesis.

PEG-MGF is available for research and laboratory purposes only. Please review and adhere to our Terms and Conditions before ordering.

References:

  1. Philippou A, Papageorgiou E, Bogdanis G, Halapas A, Sourla A, Maridaki M, Pissimissis N, Koutsilieris M. Expression of IGF-1 isoforms after exercise-induced muscle damage in humans: characterization of the MGF E peptide actions in vitro. In Vivo. 2009 Jul-Aug;23(4):567-75. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19567392/
  2. Zabłocka, B., Goldspink, P. H., Goldspink, G., & Górecki, D. C. (2012). Mechano-Growth Factor: an important cog or a loose screw in the repair machinery? Frontiers in endocrinology, 3, 131. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3485521/
  3. Janssen, J. A., Hofland, L. J., Strasburger, C. J., van den Dungen, E. S., & Thevis, M. (2016). Potency of Full-Length MGF to Induce Maximal Activation of the IGF-I R Is Similar to Recombinant Human IGF-I at High Equimolar Concentrations. PloS one, 11(3), e0150453. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4798685/
  4. Rotwein P. (2014). Editorial: the fall of mechanogrowth factor?. Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.), 28(2), 155–156. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3896639/
  5. Liu X, Zeng Z, Zhao L, Chen P, Xiao W. Impaired Skeletal Muscle Regeneration Induced by Macrophage Depletion Could Be Partly Ameliorated by MGF Injection. Front Physiol. 2019 May 17;10:601. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31164836/
  6. Philippou A, Papageorgiou E, Bogdanis G, Halapas A, Sourla A, Maridaki M, Pissimissis N, Koutsilieris M. Expression of IGF-1 isoforms after exercise-induced muscle damage in humans: characterization of the MGF E peptide actions in vitro. In Vivo. 2009 Jul-Aug;23(4):567-75. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19567392/
  7. Doroudian G, Pinney J, Ayala P, Los T, Desai TA, Russell B. Sustained delivery of MGF peptide from microrods attracts stem cells and reduces apoptosis of myocytes. Biomed Microdevices. 2014 Oct;16(5):705-15. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24908137/
  8. Deng M, Zhang B, Wang K, Liu F, Xiao H, Zhao J, Liu P, Li Y, Lin F, Wang Y. Mechano growth factor E peptide promotes osteoblasts proliferation and bone-defect healing in rabbits. Int Orthop. 2011 Jul;35(7):1099-106. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21057789/
  9. Alec Walker. Hearts and Minds of Mice and Men: Mechano Growth Factor a new tool in the battle against age-related neuron loss? 20 Jul 2017. https://blogs.biomedcentral.com/on-biology/2017/07/20/hearts-minds-mice-men-mechano-growth-factor-new-tool-battle-age-related-neuron-loss/

Dr. Marinov

Dr. Marinov (MD, Ph.D.) is a researcher and chief assistant professor in Preventative Medicine & Public Health. Prior to his professorship, Dr. Marinov practiced preventative, evidence-based medicine with an emphasis on Nutrition and Dietetics. He is widely published in international peer-reviewed scientific journals and specializes in peptide therapy research.

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