Mechano Growth Factor (MGF) Peptide
MGF stands for Mechano Growth Factor, an endogenous, naturally occurring peptide that belongs to the class of IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor) family (2). What differentiates MGF from systemic IGF-1 is that it contains 49 base pairs at exon 5 in its structural composition, which may possibly introduce a frameshift that may cause it to exhibit unique characteristics (1). Researchers consider MGF to be an isoform of IGF-1, also known as IGF-1Ec (3).
As IGF-1 undergoes splicing or transcription, it appears to produce three isoforms. IGF-1 undergoes splicing under stress conditions, such as during resistance exercise (4). As a result of this splicing and due to the unique 49 base pair insert added to the peptide, it may produce a mature isoform of IGF-1, namely, naturally occurring MGF (4).
During IGF-1 research studies, scientists first posited the phenomenon of IGF-1 splicing and isoform production. The only factor identified by the researchers that distinguished the three isoforms appears to be the amino acid sequence attached to the COOH terminal. It was only in the late 1990s and early 2000s that the uniqueness of IGF-1Ec was suggested when it was theorized that its levels increased upon muscle injury (5).
There is a synthetic version of MGF peptide composed of 24 amino acids which are attached to the C-terminal of isolated MGF domain, called MGF-Ct24E peptide (6). During the studies in early 2000s (6), it was suggested that the MGF-Ct24E peptide may exhibit potential to induce muscle precursor cell proliferation. Muscle precursor cells are ‘satellite’ cells found in myofiber, which proliferates to form new muscles.
Research studies are still underway to determine the mechanism of action of both the naturally occurring and synthetically developed MGF peptide. Hypotheses under investigation are listed below:
- Possible action on damaged muscle
- Possible tissue and bone injury improvement
- May promote wound healing
- May exhibit neuroprotective properties
- May exhibit cardioprotective characteristics
- Potential to reduce muscle cell apoptosis
Research and Clinical Studies
MGF Peptide and Muscle Mass
The main aim of this study (7) was to determine the potential of the synthetic MGF peptide, MGF-24aa-E, on different aged cells. This was a study where muscle cell cultures were prepared for different ages ranging from neonatal to aged muscles. Upon presenting MGF-24aa-E to the cultures, the culture cells were then analyzed. The results suggested that there was cell proliferation in all cells isolated from neonatal to young cells, however, this was not the case in cells isolated from aged subjects. Muscle hypertrophy appeared to be increased in the cells from older cells with a significant decrease in the reserve cells.
The main aim of another study (8) was to evaluate the potential of MGF on skeletal muscle injury repair and healing. This study was performed on mice that were experimentally induced with muscle contusion and muscular depletion. Mechano Growth Factor was presented to these subjects directly. Upon analysis of the muscle tissues, it was suggested by the researchers that MGF may have reduced the expressions of inflammatory units such as cytokines and chemokines, and reduced stress factors. As a result, the rate of contused muscles appeared to be declined, which might induce long-term muscular repair of the wounded tissues.
MGF Peptide and Anti-apoptotic Properties
The main goal of this study (9) was to evaluate the potential of MGF on cardiac muscles undergoing programmed cell death following hypoxia, which is a condition characterized by limited supply of oxygen. Rats were experimentally induced with hypoxia with only 1% oxygen supply leading to cellular apoptosis. Once the peptide was given to the test subjects, the study reported that the peptide appeared to induce increased migration of stem cells to the heart which possibly led to inhibition of apoptosis.
MGF Peptide and Skeletal Injury
The main goal of this study (10) was to evaluate the potential of MGF on bone injury. 27 rabbits were experimentally induced with a 5-mm bone defect and were then divided into three groups that were given MGF, or with a placebo for 5 consecutive days. Post trial, when the bone tissues were histologically examined, it was reported by the researchers that the placebo tissue appeared to be the least healed, whereas the bone tissue with MGF appeared to be the most healed tissue.
MGF Peptide and Brain Ischemia
The main purpose of a 2005 study (11) was to combat ischemic stroke through the potential action of MGF peptides. The actions were studied in experimental trials conducted on gerbil rodents suffering from brain ischemia. Synthetic Mechano Growth Factor peptide was presented to these rats as an ischemic mitigator. It was reported by the researchers that MGF appeared to lead to increased protection of the brain cells. Interestingly, in the same model, it was also reported that ischemia appeared to lead to elevated endogenous MGF production in the ischemia resistant neurons as well. Additional studies were carried out in degenerated hippocampal cell culture, to which MGF was added. Upon addition, MGF exhibited reportedly similar results of muscle proliferation. This potential action is believed to be due to the C-terminal of the MGF peptide, which may exert some level of neuroprotective action.
MGF Peptide and Brain Cells
Several studies (12) were conducted on mice who were experimented on in order to increase the levels of MGF and thereby study the action of increased MGF concentration on their brain cells. One study included breeding of mice in order to constitutively overproduce MGF in the hippocampus area of the brain. Hippocampus is primarily responsible for regulating the neurogenesis phenomenon in the body. This overproduction of MGF appeared to result in high concentrations of BrdU, which is a biological marker representative of proliferative actions in the body.
Another study was conducted where mice were bred to conditional MGF production at 1, 3 and 12 months old. Behavioral analysis and biological responses were examined after 2 years. These mice were reported to exhibit elevated levels of BrdU and neurogenesis.
MGF peptide is available for research and laboratory purposes only. Please review and adhere to our Terms and Conditions before ordering.
1. Goldspink G. Impairment of IGF-I gene splicing and MGF expression associated with muscle wasting. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2006 Mar;38(3):481-9. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16463438/
2. Philippou A, Papageorgiou E, Bogdanis G, Halapas A, Sourla A, Maridaki M, Pissimissis N, Koutsilieris M. Expression of IGF-1 isoforms after exercise-induced muscle damage in humans: characterization of the MGF E peptide actions in vitro. In Vivo. 2009 Jul-Aug;23(4):567-75. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19567392/
3. Zabłocka, B., Goldspink, P. H., Goldspink, G., & Górecki, D. C. (2012). Mechano-Growth Factor: an important cog or a loose screw in the repair machinery? Frontiers in endocrinology, 3, 131. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3485521/
4. G Goldspink. Research on mechano growth factor: its potential for optimising physical training as well as misuse in doping. Department of Surgery, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Hampstead Campus, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF. https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/39/11/787
5. Rotwein P. (2014). Editorial: the fall of mechanogrowth factor?. Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.), 28(2), 155–156. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3896639/
6. Mills P, Dominique JC, Lafrenière JF, Bouchentouf M, Tremblay JP. A synthetic mechano growth factor E Peptide enhances myogenic precursor cell transplantation success. Am J Transplant. 2007 Oct;7(10):2247-59. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17845560/
7. Kandalla PK, Goldspink G, Butler-Browne G, Mouly V. Mechano Growth Factor E peptide (MGF-E), derived from an isoform of IGF-1, activates human muscle progenitor cells and induces an increase in their fusion potential at different ages. Mech Ageing Dev. 2011 Apr. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21354439/
8. Liu X, Zeng Z, Zhao L, Chen P, Xiao W. Impaired Skeletal Muscle Regeneration Induced by Macrophage Depletion Could Be Partly Ameliorated by MGF Injection. Front Physiol. 2019 May 17;10:601. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31164836/
9. Doroudian, G., Pinney, J., Ayala, P., Los, T., Desai, T. A., & Russell, B. (2014). Sustained delivery of MGF peptide from microrods attracts stem cells and reduces apoptosis of myocytes. Biomedical microdevices, 16(5), 705–715. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10544-014-9875-z
10. Deng M, Zhang B, Wang K, Liu F, Xiao H, Zhao J, Liu P, Li Y, Lin F, Wang Y. Mechano growth factor E peptide promotes osteoblasts proliferation and bone-defect healing in rabbits. Int Orthop. 2011 Jul;35(7):1099-106. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21057789/
11. Dluzniewska J, Sarnowska A, Beresewicz M, Johnson I, Srai SK, Ramesh B, Goldspink G, Górecki DC, Zabłocka B. A strong neuroprotective effect of the autonomous C-terminal peptide of IGF-1 Ec (MGF) in brain ischemia. FASEB J. 2005 Nov;19(13):1896-8. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16144956/
12. Alec Walker. Hearts and Minds of Mice and Men: Mechano Growth Factor a new tool in the battle against age-related neuron loss? 20 Jul 2017. https://blogs.biomedcentral.com/on-biology/2017/07/20/hearts-minds-mice-men-mechano-growth-factor-new-tool-battle-age-related-neuron-loss/
13. WADA Prohibition list, Prohibited at all times. https://www.wada-ama.org/en/
Synonyms/Aliases: MGF, Mechano-Growth Factor, Insulin-like growth factor 1
NOTE: These products are intended for laboratory research use only. MGF peptide for sale is not intended for personal use. Please review and adhere to our Terms and Conditions before ordering.
Dr. Marinov (MD, Ph.D.) is a researcher and chief assistant professor in Preventative Medicine & Public Health. Prior to his professorship, Dr. Marinov practiced preventative, evidence-based medicine with an emphasis on Nutrition and Dietetics. He is widely published in international peer-reviewed scientific journals and specializes in peptide therapy research.