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Bronchogen, also known as AEDL, is classified among the Khavinson peptides and is has been suggested by researchers to act as a bioregulator. These are short signaling peptides which may cross through cellular and nuclear membranes to directly interact with the DNA. Bronchogen may have specific affinity for lung cells by regulating the expression of the NKX2-1, SCGB1A1, SCGB3A2, FOXA1, and FOXA2 genes.(1) Furthermore, authors comment that it may “bind preferentially with deoxyribooligonucleotides containing CNG sequence (CNG sites are targets for cytosine DNA methylation in eukaryotes).”(2) Indeed, the peptide has been suggested to potentially attenuate inflammatory reactions in the lungs of murine models with bleomycin-induced fibrosis(3)
Molecular formula: C18H30N4O9
Molecular weight: 446.45 g/mol
Other known titles: AEDL
Research and Clinical Studies
Below we have delved deep into the latest clinical and preclinical data on the potential actions of Bronchogen as seen in various research models.
Bronchogen and DNA
Studies have suggested that the peptide may interact with “lung cells by regulating the expression of the NKX2-1, SCGB1A1, SCGB3A2, FOXA1, and FOXA2 genes” to exert its potential actions on DNA. These actions may include reducing inflammation, promoting differentiation and preventing remodeling. (1) (4)
Further, Bronchogen’s interaction with DNA may affect genetic expression. The interaction between Bronchogen and deoxyribooligonucleotides (short DNA segments) containing a CNG sequence may potentially influence gene regulation and expression due to its association with cytosine DNA methylation sites. In eukaryotes, CNG sites (where "C" denotes cytosine, "N" stands for any nucleotide including A, T, G, or C, and "G" signifies guanine) are common targets for DNA methylation, which is considered to play a pivotal role in epigenetic modulation. Methylation at cytosine residues, particularly at CpG dinucleotides, is associated with gene silencing. If Bronchogen preferentially binds to these CNG sites, it may interfere with or modulate the methylation process, thereby impacting gene expression. This interaction may influence cellular differentiation and development or alter normal cellular functions.(2)
Bronchogen has been suggested to potentially increase DNA thermal stability as well. One study explored the impact of Bronchogen on the thermal stability of DNA derived from calf thymus and mouse liver, employing differential scanning microcalorimetry to analyze thermodynamic parameters during DNA melting. Bronchogen apparently elevated the melting temperature of DNA by 3.1 °C, acting as a DNA-stabilizing agent. The researchers also suggested that Bronchogen may not exhibit base specificity in its binding (non-selective for adenine-thymine or guanine-cytosine pairs), and apparently engages strongly yet sporadically with both DNA strands, primarily interacting with nitrogen bases, which is in contrast with previous suggestions that it targets CNG sites. Potential mechanisms might involve non-covalent interactions, such as hydrogen bonding or van der Waals forces, between Bronchogen and nitrogen bases. The implications of Bronchogen’s potential stabilizing effect on DNA may have relevance in the study and stabilization of DNA structures, possibly aiding in the development of strategies involving nucleic acids, or in biotechnological advancements where enhanced DNA stability is crucial. Further investigations into the structural and molecular aspects of this interaction may unveil more detailed mechanisms.(5)
Bronchogen and Cell Renewal
Studies suggest that the Bronchogen peptide may impact cell renewal processes and augment the functionality of bronchial epithelial cells, which opens up new potential avenues in cell regeneration research, especially related to bronchial epithelial cells. The specific binding of the peptide to DNA, notably at the guanine N7 site without visibly altering the double-helix structure, indicates a targeted interaction that might be explored further. This suggests that Bronchogen may potentially modulate cellular activities at the genetic level. However, the molecular mechanism through which Bronchogen enhances cell functionality and renewal is not fully detailed yet, making an in-depth investigation into its pharmacodynamics essential to ascertain its potential and to verify that it will not provoke unwanted mutagenic or cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, Bronchogen's potential capability to bind with DNA suggests that it may be utilized in research dedicated to developing targeted delivery systems, where the peptide might be employed to direct other compounds or agents to specific DNA sequences. This interaction and the resulting biological actions need to be extensively studied to establish the potential of Bronchogen in scientific research, considering factors like potential off-target effects, stability, and delivery mechanisms. Ultimately, the researchers commented that the “peptide proved to be an efficient agent stimulating the cell renewal processes and the enhancement of the functional activity of bronchial epithelial cells.”(6)
Bronchogen and Inflammation
Studies have examined the potential impact of Bronchogen, on the structural and functional aspects of bronchial epithelium, as well as the inflammatory activity within murine models. This model was generated in murine subjects through intermittent exposure to nitrogen dioxide for 60 days which is considered to damage the bronchial epithelium. The bronchial epithelium plays an essential role in guarding against inhaled noxious substances. Bronchogen, by hypothetically modulating inflammatory activity and the bronchial epithelium state in this model, may have led to a reduction in neutrophilic inflammation and normalization of the cellular composition and profile of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes in the bronchoalveolar space. The researchers suggested an apparent structural and functional rejuvenation of the bronchial epithelium, indicated by increased levels of secretory immunoglobulin A, a marker for local immunity, and surfactant protein B, which modulates alveolar surface tension. Possible mechanisms related to these observations may involve Bronchogen intervening in the inflammatory cascade, possibly inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes, thus alleviating inflammation. Additionally, the peptide might promote regenerative processes in the bronchial epithelium, enhancing its barrier function, and contributing to the balance of surfactant proteins essential for lung function and defenses. This research hints at novel peptide-based strategies for addressing the inflammatory and structural challenges posed by specific respiratory conditions. Further studies, particularly in broader models, are ongoing.(7) Further research suggest that these antiinflammatory actions may be exerted on the bronchial epithelium state to prevent fibrotic changes in the lungs but that the peptide may have potentially beneficial actions in other areas such as minimizing hemodynamic disturbances and possibly reducing myocardial hypertrophy in experimental models.(3)
Bronchogen and Tissue Remodeling
Trials have investigated the potential of Bronchogen for preventing tissue remodeling in murine models which went through 60-day intermittent exposure to NO2. Bronchogen appeared to abate typical symptoms of bronchial epithelium and lung tissue remodeling, such as goblet cell hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, lymphocytic infiltration, and emphysema, while also potentially restoring ciliated cells. The researchers commented that there may be an increase in secretory IgA production, indicative of normalized functional activity of bronchial epithelium, and stabilization of cell composition and proinflammatory cytokine profile in the bronchoalveolar space, hinting at reduced neutrophilic inflammation. These outcomes suggest that Bronchogen might alleviate the physical restructuring and dysfunction of lung tissues but also potentially reverse these alterations. The enhanced production of secretory IgA and the modulation of inflammatory markers suggest a mechanism involving immune enhancement and inflammation control.(8)
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- Khavinson, V. K., Popovich, I. G., Linkova, N. S., Mironova, E. S., & Ilina, A. R. (2021). Peptide Regulation of Gene Expression: A Systematic Review. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 26(22), 7053. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26227053
- Fedoreyeva, L. I., Kireev, I. I., Khavinson, V. K.h, & Vanyushin, B. F. (2011). Penetration of short fluorescence-labeled peptides into the nucleus in HeLa cells and in vitro specific interaction of the peptides with deoxyribooligonucleotides and DNA. Biochemistry. Biokhimiia, 76(11), 1210–1219. https://doi.org/10.1134/S0006297911110022
- Khavinson, V. K.h, Linkova, N. S., Polyakova, V. O., Kheifets, O. V., Tarnovskaya, S. I., & Kvetnoy, I. M. (2012). Peptides tissue-specifically stimulate cell differentiation during their aging. Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine, 153(1), 148–151. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10517-012-1664-1
- Caputi, S., Trubiani, O., Sinjari, B., Trofimova, S., Diomede, F., Linkova, N., Diatlova, A., & Khavinson, V. (2019). Effect of short peptides on neuronal differentiation of stem cells. International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology, 33, 2058738419828613. https://doi.org/10.1177/2058738419828613
- Monaselidze, J. R., Khavinson, V. K.h, Gorgoshidze, M. Z., Khachidze, D. G., Lomidze, E. M., Jokhadze, T. A., & Lezhava, T. A. (2011). Effect of the peptide bronchogen (Ala-Asp-Glu-Leu) on DNA thermostability. Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine, 150(3), 375–377. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10517-011-1146-x
- Morozova, E. A., Lin’kova, N. S., Khavinson, V. K., Soloviev, A. Y., & Kasyanenko, N. A. (2017). In vitro interaction of the AEDL peptide with DNA. Journal of Structural Chemistry, 58, 420-424.
- Titova, O. N., Kuzubova, N. A., Lebedeva, E. S., Preobrazhenskaya, T. N., Surkova, E. A., & Dvorakovskaya, I. V. (2017). Rossiiskii fiziologicheskii zhurnal imeni I.M. Sechenova, 103(2), 201–208.
- Kuzubova, N. A., Lebedeva, E. S., Dvorakovskaya, I. V., Surkova, E. A., Platonova, I. S., & Titova, O. N. (2015). Modulating Effect of Peptide Therapy on the Morphofunctional State of Bronchial Epithelium in Rats with Obstructive Lung Pathology. Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine, 159(5), 685–688. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10517-015-3047-x