The organization of DNA in eukaryotic organisms appears to involve a hierarchical and progressively condensed arrangement. Despite being approximately 3 feet in size, the DNA may be compacted to fit within a space of one hundredth of a millimeter in the cell. This DNA packaging is possibly achieved through its association with histone proteins, forming chromatin structures, which further condense into chromosomes. This hierarchical organization is speculated to serve essential functions, including facilitating DNA replication and cell division, possibly accommodating genetic material within cells, and regulating gene expression at a high level. In essence, DNA organization seems to be crucial for packaging genetic material and controlling access to specific genes.(1)
Livagen’s Influence on Chromatin and the Immune System
Research studies examined Livagen peptide, speculating that the compound may activate several genes in lymphocytes, a primary cell type of the immune system, by inducing chromatin decondensation (unpacking). This activation appears to cause the reawakening of genes that are typically silenced in mature and elderly test models, including ribosomal genes responsible for enhanced protein production and increased cell activity.(2) Thus, Livagen may exhibit a direct impact on DNA within lymphocytes, potentially rejuvenating these cells.
Research suggests that lymphocytes encompass B cells and T cells, both integral components of the immune system. B cells appear to produce antibodies to combat foreign invaders, while T cells appear to target infected or cancerous cells. T cells are also speculated to release cytokines, producing chemical signals that coordinate immune responses and possibly regulate inflammation.(3)
Lymphocytes appear to play a crucial role in immune defense, and their declining activity over time is speculated to contribute to increased vulnerability to various ailments. T Lezhava et al., who conducted a clinical research study on 75- to 88-year-olds, state that “These results indicate that peptide bioregulators Epitalon, Livagen, and Vilon cause activation (deheterochromatinization) of chromatin in lymphocytes of old individuals.”(4)
Livagen Peptide and Cardio-protective Properties
Chromatin dysregulation is speculated to negatively impact the cardiac system. Several research studies suggest that Livagen peptide, as a bioregulatory peptide, may help revert these chromatin dysregulation and thereby possibly exert cardio-protective effects.(5) (6)
In a separate study, Livagen was introduced in combination with cobalt ions to investigate their collective impact on chromatin structures. This combination appeared to be effective in ameliorating the negative effects, as it is speculated to induce decondensation of chromatin. The results of this study are stated to be important “because it provides new information about the protective effect of Livagen and Livagen + Cobalt ions on the lymphocytes of HCM [test subjects].”(7)
Numerous studies propose that decondensation of chromatin in lymphocytes, facilitated by the release of certain genes, may help reduce long-term complications associated with various cardiac complications.(8) The mechanism of action of Livagen appears to include the possible modulation of lymphocyte gene expression that may aid in reducing inflammation and related scarring.
Livagen Peptide and Pain Mechanism
Enkephalins are naturally occurring proteins that appear to engage with both mu and delta opioid receptors. Upon activation of mu receptors, which are also targeted by morphine, pain, blood pressure, and consciousness, appear to reduce. On the other hand, activation of delta receptors is speculated to lead to decreased pain perception and may contribute to the respiratory depression observed with opiates.(8) Research on bioregulatory peptides has posited that Livagen may exert inhibitory effects on enkephalin-degrading enzymes present in the blood, possibly resulting in elevated levels of endogenous pain-relieving substances.
Livagen Peptide and GI System
Emerging research indicates that both mu and delta opioid receptors may play a crucial role in safeguarding the mucosal barrier of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract upon activation.
Livagen appears to exert a notable impact in this context by potentially enhancing vagal nerve signaling to the GI tract and modulating mucosal nitric oxide and prostaglandins.(8)
These mechanisms collectively appear to yield profound gastroprotection. Livagen is speculated to be highly capable of possibly enhancing the activation of these receptors through elevating enkephalin levels in the bloodstream.
Livagen Peptide and Aging
Current research indicates that many of the actions associated with aging stem from modifications in DNA organization, possibly influencing the accessibility and expression of certain genes. Professor Teimuraz Lezhava, a leading authority on chromatin changes during aging, has extensively documented these alterations. His investigations reveal a possible correlation between age and an increase in chromosomal aberrations. Notably, these aberrations involve progressive condensation of chromatin, leading to DNA inactivation, as well as reduced cellular repair processes, resulting from the aforementioned condensation.(9)
An intriguing proposition arises from the perception that reversing the process of chromatin condensation might potentially extend lifespan. As gene silencing appears to accelerate aging, reactivating these genes could potentially decelerate the aging process. Dr. Lezhava’s research has indicated that certain bioregulatory peptides, including Livagen, Epitalon, and a select few others, may exhibit potential to impact this process through decondensing DNA.(10)
Livagen is a concise bioregulatory peptide that appears to have direct impacts on DNA structure and functionality. Its prominent potential appears to lie in its possible capacity to induce chromatin decondensation, leading to enhanced expression of specific genes and possibly promoting a more “youthful” cellular profile. Extensive research has primarily focused on investigating its effects on lymphocytes, which are integral components of the immune system. Through the modulation of these cells, Livagen is speculated to play a vital role in immune system activation. However, further research is required to fully explore the potential of this peptide.
NOTE: These products are intended for laboratory research use only. This peptide is not intended for personal use. Please review and adhere to our Terms and Conditions before ordering.
- Chromatin. National Human Genome Research Institute. https://www.genome.gov/genetics-glossary/Chromatin
- Khavinson VKh, Lezhava TA, Monaselidze JG, Dzhokhadze TA, Dvalishvili NA, Bablishvili NK, Ryadnova IY. Effects of Livagen peptide on chromatin activation in lymphocytes from old people. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2002 Oct;134(4):389-92. doi: 10.1023/a:1021924702103. PMID: 12533768. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12533768/
- Lymphocyte. National Human Genome Research Institute. https://www.genome.gov/genetics-glossary/Lymphocyte
- Lezhava T, Monaselidze J, Kadotani T, Dvalishvili N, Buadze T. Anti-aging peptide bioregulators induce reactivation of chromatin. Georgian Med News. 2006 Apr;(133):111-5. PMID: 16705247. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16705247/
- Dzhokhadze Ta et al., Functional regulation of genome with peptide bioregulators by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (by patients and relatives), December 1, 2013. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Functional-regulation-of-genome-with-peptide-by-(by-Ta-TZh/ddda519986d5793a0aedc2293f00f0e5fa540b4d
- Lezhava T et al., Activation of pericentromeric and telomeric heterochromatin in cultured lymphocytes from old individuals, 01 Apr 2007. https://europepmc.org/article/MED/17460203
- [Effect of peptide bioregulator and cobalt ions on the activity of NORs and associations of acrocentric chromosomes in lymphocytes of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and their relatives]. Georgian Med News. 2014 Sep;(234):134-7. Russian. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25341254/
- Gyires K, Rónai AZ. Supraspinal delta- and mu-opioid receptors mediate gastric mucosal protection in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Jun;297(3):1010-5. PMID: 11356923. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11356923/
- Lezhava TA. Funktsional’nye osobennosti khromosom cheloveka i starenie [Human chromosome functional characteristics and aging]. Adv Gerontol. 2001;8:34-43. Russian. PMID: 11582753. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11582753/
- Khavinson VKh, Lezhava TA, Monaselidze JR, Jokhadze TA, Dvalishvili NA, Bablishvili NK, Trofimova SV. Peptide Epitalon activates chromatin at the old age. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2003 Oct;24(5):329-33. PMID: 14647006. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14647006/
Dr. Marinov (MD, Ph.D.) is a researcher and chief assistant professor in Preventative Medicine & Public Health. Prior to his professorship, Dr. Marinov practiced preventative, evidence-based medicine with an emphasis on Nutrition and Dietetics. He is widely published in international peer-reviewed scientific journals and specializes in peptide therapy research.