TB-500 / Thymosin beta 4 is made up of 43 amino acids, making it a oligopeptide, and has a molecular weight of about 4.9 kDa. It is spread out all around most tissues – with the exception of erythrocytes (RBCs; red blood cells). The peptide was initially discovered from the mammalian thymus gland as a protein isolate. It belongs to a family of thymosins, acidic molecules that are light in weight, and that can function to produce cells. With that said, the motion and distinction of cells can be manipulated by counteracting the power of singular monomers (or actin proteins) to polymerize into thin strands. In contrast, thymosins assemble the actin monomers, which permit or deny the production of coming filaments. This may, to a degree, facilitate or inhibit the differentiation of a cell – such as a pluripotent stem cell into another (e.g. neurons or bone cells).
It follows that thymosin-like molecules (thymosin beta-4 being most prevalent in mammals) may potentially play a major function in tissue (some, not all) regeneration or even postnatal development. TB-500’s potential influence over actin could manipulate the migration of cells and the formation of new blood vessels. This means that the protein may also potentially be able to repair wounds. It is available as a lab-grade, synthetic peptide called TB-500 (Thymosin Beta 4).
Thymosin Beta 4 (TB-500) Peptide Research
The function of TB-500 to repair and regenerate tissue has been suggested through various clinical trials. Thymosin Beta 4 has appeared to exhibit the ability to slow or prevent scar formation, microbial growth, cell death, and inflammation. TB-500, derived externally, may speed up the repair of injured corneal, dermal, and cardiac tissues, thus presenting a likely ability to heal wounds.
Studying the therapeutic potential of TB-500 may even further contribute to a deeper comprehension of the peptide. This peptide could also, potentially, play a role in repairing and regenerating various other tissues throughout the body, such as those of the peripheral nervous system, brain, heart, and spinal cord. TB-500 has been suggested to offer anti-inflammatory properties as well. It has also presented the power to weaken the discharge of prostaglandin EP4 and nitric oxide in cell models exposed to reactive oxygen species. Nevertheless, it may increase the stimulus response of pro-inflammatory chemokines and several interleukins in cells of the periodontium. Yet another function for TB-500 may exhibit in the management of bone production, since these are osteoclastogenic molecules as well.
In one study, NF-κB activation in murine macrophages was hindered by the peptide. TB-500 is also involved with the release of an anti-inflammatory peptide fragment called acSDKP – the metabolism of which is regulated by a number of interesting factors, and which also happens to be a TB500 derivative. The preparation of TB 500 together with integrated kidney tissue of rats produced a significant increase in the release of acSDKP7. Before acSDKP could be split apart from it, this process is governed by an intricate governing mechanism which necessitates peptidases that split only the molecules of particular fragments, involving TB-500 hydrolysis by meprin-alpha.
Researchers may find Thymosin beta-4 to be quite useful for studying the fibrotic scarring of different organs. Recently, results from a team of researchers have been published that present notable inflammation reductions in a rodent replica of pulmonary fibrosis. Also, acSDKP has presented a renal fibrosis reduction in rodents. The treatment using the fragment produced a decreased discharge of the major components of scar tissue (collagen and fibronectin), as well as a decrease in myofibroblast and macrophage migration to the damaged sites.
Hepatic stellate cell activation also appears to be associated with the up-regulation of TB-500. Generally, TB-500 is a peptide having to do with intricate developmental and governing processes that take place in living animals. TB-500 looks to be a possible factor of tissue regeneration management, inflammation, and cell differentiation. Therefore, it can potentially be used on replicas of medical issues like rheumatoid arthritis, abnormal fibrosis, various states of postnatal development, and other forms of osteolytic inflammation.
Let’s review a few research studies where some of TB-500 peptide benefits were suggested.
In one study using rodents, TB 500 presented a wound healing potential after being applied to an injury using an intraperitoneal or topical preparation. Tissues were re-epithelialized by forty-two percent over saline controls on the fourth day of the study; sixty-one percent on the seventh day after the injury occurred. An elevation in the discharge of collagen and formation of new blood vessels were seen in the treated wounds. These results suggest that Thymosin Beta 4 is a potent wound healing factor.
Eyes and Vision
In different animal studies, TB 500 treated eye-related impairments effectively – including injuries having to do with UV light, alkali, exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke, heptanol debridement, and ethanol exposure. In every enhanced healing situation, cell migration induced by TB 500 appeared responsible for the repairs made to the injured/wounded region. The damaged eyes recovered quickly, and the migration increase with this peptide was reported.
In one study, TB-500 was applied to soft tissue wounds in rodents. The wounds were in the center of the palate, and were three millimeters in diameter. Pictures of the wounded regions were taken and examined microscopically just seven days after the procedure. The wound closure was reported to be significantly enhanced in rats that were treated with Thymosin Beta 4. In most cases, healing of oral cavity wounds is known to happen more rapidly and doesn’t scar as much as dermal tissue, which may result from the distinct phenotype of oral fibroblasts, and from particular salivary components. Nonetheless, damaged tissues resulting from implant and periodontal procedures are constantly confronted with a bacterial infection in the oral cavity, requiring detailed, cautious oral hygiene maintenance and increased management of plaque, regardless of the fairly quick wound healing.
That is why, TB-500, which is suggested to improve the reconstruction of various tissue types, is anticipated to speed up the healing of mucosal wounds as well. In another prior study, TB 500 was recorded as being a natural salivary element depending on disease stage and age.
TB-500 Safety Profile
Despite all the research hitherto, they have been performed on non-human, animal test subjects and not much is known about its adverse effects.Here are just a few of the most common side effects observed in test subjects so far:
- Severe lethargy and fatigue
- Potential headache
- Potential nausea
- Orthostatic/postural hypotension (head rush) just after injection, but goes away in a few minutes
You can buy TB-500 peptide for research by visiting Core Peptides. It is available strictly for laboratory and research purposes and is not approved for use in humans.
- Kim J, Wang S, Hyun J, et al. Hepatic Stellate Cells Express Thymosin Beta 4 in Chronically Damaged Liver. PloS one journal, 2015.
- Philip D, Goldstein AL, Kleinman HK. Thymosin beta4 promotes angiogenesis, wound healing, and hair follicle development. Mechanisms of ageing and development, 2004.
- Lee S-I, Yi J-K, Bae W-J, et al. Thymosin Beta-4 Suppresses Osteoclastic Differentiation and Inflammatory Responses in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells. PloS one journal, 2016.
- Conte E, Genovese T, Gili E, et al. Protective effects of thymosin beta4 in a mouse model of lung fibrosis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2012.
- Sosne G, Kleinman HK; Primary Mechanisms of Thymosin β4 Repair Activity in Dry Eye Disorders and Other Tissue Injuries. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci, 2015.
- Goldstein AL, Hannappel E, Sosne G & Kleinman HK. Thymosin β4: a multi-functional regenerative peptide. Basic properties and clinical applications, Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, 2012.
NOTE: The information found on this website and within this article is intended for educational or informational purposes only. Some or all of the content in these articles are not substantiated by a medical professional and may be based on the opinions of the writer who may not be a medical or accredited professional. Not intended for personal or human use. Please review our Terms and Conditions before purchasing.
Dr. Marinov (MD, Ph.D.) is a researcher and chief assistant professor in Preventative Medicine & Public Health. Prior to his professorship, Dr. Marinov practiced preventative, evidence-based medicine with an emphasis on Nutrition and Dietetics. He is widely published in international peer-reviewed scientific journals and specializes in peptide therapy research.